What is ECTS?
 European Credit Transfer and Accumulation System (ECTS) is a student-centered system based on the defined learning outcomes and the workload required to achieve the learning outcomes and competences that define the qualification. ECTS was set up initially for credit transfer within the Erasmus program in 1989. The system facilitated the recognition of periods of study abroad and thus enhanced the quality and volume of student mobility in Europe. Recently, ECTS has developed into an accumulation system implemented at institutional, regional, national and European level. Greater transparency of learning achievements simplifies the recognition of studies done in other countries. ECTS helps with the planning, delivery and evaluation of study programmes, and makes them more transparent. Since ECTS is based on the learning achievements and workload of a course, a student can transfer their ECTS credits from one university to another so they are added up to contribute to an individual's degree programme or training. It is a central tool in the Bologna Process, which aims to make national systems more compatible.

How Does It Work?
ECTS is based on the principle that 60 credits measure the workload of a full-time student during one academic year. It is the only credit system that has been successfully tested and used across Europe. The student workload of a full-time study programme in Europe amounts in most cases to around 1500-1800 hours per year and in those cases one credit stands for around 25 to 30 working hours. At Munzur University: 1 ECTS corresponds to 30 hours of workload. The student workload in an academic year is 1800 hours. Student workload in ECTS consists of the time required to complete all planned learning activities such as preparing for a lecture, attending lectures, seminars, independent and private study, preparation of projects, examinations, and so forth, and reflects the quantity of work each component requires to achieve its specific objectives or learning outcomes in relation to the total quantity of work necessary to complete a full year of study successfully. All forms of learning – formal, informal and non-formal – are included in the credit value. Credits in ECTS can only be obtained after successful completion of the work required and appropriate assessment of the learning outcomes achieved. There are many different grading systems in Europe. To help institutions translate the grades awarded by host institutions to ECTS students, the ECTS grading scale has been developed. This provides additional information on the student's performance to that provided by the institution's grade, but does not replace the local grade. Higher education institutions make their own decisions on how to apply the ECTS grading scale to their own system.